Immunology Immunological function of the thymus. Lancet. 1961; 278: 748-749 Thymic epithelial cells. Annu Rev Immunol. 2019; 35: 85-118 Skogberg G. Lundberg V. Berglund M. Gudmundsdottir J. Telemo E. Lindgren S. et al. Human thymic epithelial primary cells produce exosomes carrying tissue-restricted antigens. Immunol Cell Biol. 2019; 93: 727-734 Villegas J.A. Gradolatto A. Truffault F.
0 Comments Top Reads. 2021. J. Immunol. 207: 1697. In the third summary, titled “IRF4 Controls B Cell Proliferation,” an error was made in the sixth sentence. The sixth sentence should read “MYC overexpression was sufficient to overcome growth defects in IRF4cKO cells, but not the proliferative defect.” The online version has been changed to reflect
0 Comments A new study shows how vitamin D can help dairy cows fend off infections, offering opportunities for better animal health and welfare improvements in the agricultural industry. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for proper calcium absorption in the body. Cows (like humans) produce the vitamin in their skin when exposed
0 Comments Kawasaki-like disease: emerging complication during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2020; 395: 1741-1743 Bautista-Rodriguez C, Sanchez-de-Toledo J, Clark BC, Herberg J, Bajolle F, Randanne PC, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: an international survey. Pediatrics. In press. Feldstein L.R. Rose E.B. Horwitz S.M. Collins J.P. Newhams M.M. Son M.B.F. et al. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in
0 Comments Visual Abstract Abstract African swine fever is a severe animal infectious disease caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), and the morbidity and mortality associated with virulent ASFV isolates are as high as 100%. Previous studies showed that the ability of ASFV to antagonize IFN production is closely related to its pathogenicity. Here, we
0 Comments Our immune systems have developed an arsenal of sophisticated molecular weapons to defend us against the continuous barrage of environmental threats. Among these are antibodies, Y-shaped proteins with two ‘arms’ that latch on to targets with exquisite specificity. Their inherent properties, along with our ability to mass-produce these proteins in large quantities, make antibodies exceptionally
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0 Comments Navinés-Ferrer, A., E. Ainsua-Enrich, E. Serrano-Candelas, E. Proaño-Pérez, R. Mμñoz-Cano, G. Gastaminza, A. Olivera, and M. Martin. 2021. MYO1F regulates IgE and MRGPRX2-dependent mast cell exocytosis. J. Immunol. 206: 2277–2289. An affiliation was omitted from the fourth author’s affiliations. The corrected author list and affiliations are shown below. This has been corrected in the
0 Comments A family of proteins, known as transcription factors, regulate the biological process of converting DNA into RNA. Transcription factors can speed up or slow down the rate of transcription, and they allow the expression of unique genes in different cell types.   Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a well-studied transcription factor that is highly involved in
0 Comments The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses a severe threat to public health worldwide. In Sweden, more than 1 million cases and 14,729 deaths have been confirmed up to September 15, 2021. Recently the death rate has decreased, mainly as a result of the vaccination
0 Comments Key Points Deficiency of Acsl4 in rpMACs reduces arachidonic acid levels in phospholipids. Arachidonic acid–derived mediators are reduced in stimulated Acsl4-deficient rpMACs. In response to stimulation, myeloid Acsl4 deficiency reduces inflammation. Abstract In response to infection or tissue damage, resident peritoneal macrophages (rpMACs) produce inflammatory lipid mediators from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), arachidonic
0 Comments Immunologists have uncovered a molecular switch in T cells that serves as a prime target for therapeutics against inflammatory bowel disease, or IBS.  Over 10 percent of the population is affected by IBS, yet we still don’t have a clear picture of the biology underlying the condition. The root cause is likely not one, but a
0 Comments Key words Alarmins are innate cytokines released by damaged or dying cells that act to initiate inflammatory immune responses. One prototypical alarmin is IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines that is enriched in epithelial cells and plays a key role in the initiation of allergic immune responses. 1 Barrier epithelial cells
0 Comments Abstract Ducks are an economically important waterfowl but a natural reservoir for some zoonotic pathogens, such as influenza virus and flaviviruses. Our understanding of the duck immune system and its interaction with viruses remains incomplete. In this study, we constructed the transcriptomic landscape of duck circulating immune cells, the first line of defense in
0 Comments Researchers have learned a lot about the SARS-CoV-2 virus since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. We know that the virus has a spike protein that enables it to latch on to epithelial cells in the nose, and gain entry to those cells to cause an infection. Once that infection takes hold, it can
0 Comments NCD Countdown 2030 collaborators NCD Countdown 2030: worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards sustainable development goal target 3.4. Lancet. 2019; 392: 1072-1088 Kamkuemah M. Gausi B. Oni T. Missed opportunities for NCD multimorbidity prevention in adolescents and youth living with HIV in urban South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2020; 20: 821
0 Comments Key Points Intracellular hemocyanin affects microbiota homeostasis in shrimp hepatopancreas. Hemocyanin modulates ROS levels to change hepatopancreas bacterial composition. Low hemocyanin induces mitochondrial dysfunction to affect energy and ROS production. Abstract Aquatic organisms have to produce proteins or factors that help maintain a stable relationship with microbiota and prevent colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. In
0 Comments Green tea has long been touted as the elixir of youth—high concentrations of chemicals called polyphenols were believed to have powerful antioxidant effects, promoting wellness.  However, a new study has revealed new, contradictory insights on green tea’s impact on a cellular level. Previously, polyphenols were thought to dampen oxidative stress or the accumulation of
0 Comments Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a group of inherited conditions typically defined by lack of T lymphocytes resulting from an intrinsic T lymphocyte differentiation defect associated or not with lack of B lymphocyte and/or natural killer cell differentiation, depending on the underlying monogenic defect. 1 Tangye S.G. Al-Herz W. Bousfiha A. Chatila T. Cunningham-Rundles
0 Comments Abstract Complement evasion is a hallmark of extracellular microbial pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Lyme disease spirochetes express nearly a dozen outer surface lipoproteins that bind complement components and interfere with their native activities. Among these, BBK32 is unique in its selective inhibition of the classical pathway. BBK32
0 Comments To the people of Samoa, the medicinal qualities of a tree known as matalafi are well known. A preparation or homogenate derived from the leaves of the matalafi tree (Psychotria insularum) has been used for hundreds of years in Samoa to treat a huge variety of ailments, including wounds, fever, body aches and stomach
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0 Comments Key Points DPs reside in the mediastinal adipose tissue and aortic arch. Extrathymic DP presence depends on the thymus and RAG2 expression. Extrathymic DPs migrate locally. Abstract Double-positive CD4+CD8αβ+ (DP) cells are thought to reside as T cell progenitors exclusively within the thymus. We recently discovered an unexpected CD4+ and CD8αβ+ immune cell population
0 Comments Despite the incremental success immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have attributed to the cancer treatment landscape recently, there remains a large proportion of patients who do not respond.  This discrepancy presents a vital need to develop new strategies to enhance the efficacy of ICIs.   A recent study published in Science Signaling uncovers one exciting strategy
0 Comments AAAAI Launches New Course Modules to Address Gaps in PIDD Diagnosis Simulated patient encounters that provide you with real-life situations in an interactive learning environment are the focus of two new modules launched as part of a new “Providing Enhanced Medical Support for Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders (PIDD)” program offered by the AAAAI
0 Comments Introduction Venous air embolism may complicate many surgical and medical procedures, including vascular access, open or laparoscopic procedures, biopsies, interventional radiological procedures, and extracorporeal blood circulations such as dialysis, plasmapheresis, or heart and lung machine circulation (1, 2). Air emboli can cause acute hemodynamic collapse and trigger life-threatening inflammatory lung edema (3, 4), with
0 Comments An increasing number of COVID-19 patients have reported ear-related issues: ringing in the ear, hearing loss, and balance problems. In response, researchers at MIT have identified that the coronavirus is able to infect the cells of the inner ear. The delicate tissues of the inner ear are responsible for detecting sound and balance. The
0 Comments Key Points Hypomorphic SH2B3 improves the sepsis response in humans and mice. SH2B3 deficiency results in enhanced phagocytosis and rapid bacterial clearance. Lack of SH2B3 augments myelopoiesis in sepsis. Visual Abstract Abstract The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3184504 is broadly associated with increased risk for multiple autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Although the allele is uniquely
0 Comments One causes red, scaly patches on the skin, and the other triggers breathing difficulties, but there are some common threads between psoriasis and asthma. Most notably, they are both caused by uncontrolled immune responses.  With this overlap in mind, researchers hypothesized that a monoclonal antibody therapy used to treat psoriasis, risankizumab, may help relieve