Supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) through the BioData Catalyst program (awards 1OT3HL142479-01, 1OT3HL142478-01, 1OT3HL142481-01, 1OT3HL142480-01, and 1OT3HL147154), as well as by NHLBI grant 1R01HL104608-01A14 and NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases grant U19 AI117673. C.P.H. reports grants from the NHLBI and the Alpha-1 Foundation. Funding for the Barbados Asthma Genetics Study was provided by NIH grants R01HL104608, R01HL087699, and HL104608 S1.
Disclosure of potential conflict of interest: L. A. Beck is a consultant for AbbVie, Allakos, AstraZeneca, Benevolent AIBio, Incyte, Janssen, Leo Pharma, Lilly, Naos Bioderma, Novartis, Pfizer, Principia Biopharma, Rapt Therapeutics, Regeneron, Sanofi/Genzyme, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, and Vimalan and an investigator for AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Kiniksa, Leo Pharma, Pfizer, Regeneron, and Sanofi, and she has stock in Medtronics, Moderna, and Gilead. R. L. Gallo is a board member of MatriSys Bioscience, has received a consulting fee from Sente, has pending grants through Novan and Regeneron, and has stock in Sente and MatriSys. C. P. Hersh reports a grant from Novartis related to this study and grants from Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Vertex, as well as personal fees from Takeda outside of this study. D. Y. M. Leung has been a consultant for Sanofi-Genzyme, Genentech, Janssen R&D, AbbVie, Amagma Therapeutics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Leo Pharmaceuticals, and Incyte Pharmaceuticals. E. Guttman-Yassky is an employee of Mount Sinai; she has received research funds (grants paid to the institution) from AbbVie, Almirall, Amgen, AnaptysBio, Asana Biosciences, AstraZeneca, Boerhinger Ingelhiem, Celgene, Dermavant, DS Biopharma, Eli Lilly, Galderma,Glenmark/Ichnos Sciences, Innovaderm, Janssen, Kiniksa, Kyowa Kirin, Leo Pharma, Novan, Novartis, Pfizer, Ralexar, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Sienna Biopharma, UCB and Union Therapeutics/Antibiotx, and she is a consultant for AbbVie, Aditum Bio, Almirall, Alpine, Amgen, Arena, Asana Biosciences, AstraZeneca, Bluefin Biomedicine, Boerhinger Ingelhiem, Boston Pharmaceuticals, Botanix, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Cara Therapeutics, Celgene, Clinical Outcome Solutions, DBV, Dermavant, Dermira, Douglas Pharmaceutical, DS Biopharma, Eli Lilly, EMD Serono, Evelo Bioscience, Evidera, FIDE, Galderma, GSK, Haus Bioceuticals, Ichnos Sciences, Incyte, Kyowa Kirin, Larrk Bio, Leo Pharma, Medicxi, Medscape, Neuralstem, Noble Insights, Novan, Novartis, Okava Pharmaceuticals, Pandion Therapeutics, Pfizer, Principia Biopharma, RAPT Therapeutics, Realm, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Sanofi, SATO Pharmaceutical, Sienna Biopharma, Seanegy Dermatology, Seelos Therapeutics, Serpin Pharma, Siolta Therapeutics, Sonoma Biotherapeutics, Sun Pharma, Target PharmaSolutions, Union Therapeutics, Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Ventyx Biosciences, Vimalan. A. S. Paller has been a consultant for AbbVie, Arena, Bausch, Bristol Myers Squibb, Dermavant, Eli Lilly, Forte, Leo, Lifemax, Pfizer, Rapt, Regeneron, and Sanofi and an investigator (support to institution) for AbbVie, Eli Lilly, and Regeneron. L. C. Schneider is an investigator for Regneneron and DBV Technologies; a consultant for Amagma, Alladapt, and Ukko; and has grants from Genentech and Pfizer. K. C. Barnes receives royalties from UpToDate. The rest of the authors declare that they have no relevant conflicts of interest.